Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats (IDWH)
In the Wildlife Division of the Ministry, the Additional Director General of Forests (WL) and Director, Wildlife Preservation is the head of the Wildlife Wing. The Wildlife Wing has two Divisions, namely, Project Elephant Division and Wildlife Division, each headed by an officer in the rank of Inspector General of Forests. A Deputy Inspector General of Forest (Wildlife) and an Assistant Inspector General and Joint Director (Wildlife) provide administrative and technical support to the Wildlife Wing. In addition, there are three autonomous bodies, Wildlife Institute of India (WII) for wildlife research & training, Central Zoo Authority (CZA) for conservation and zoo management and National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). The NTCA has been constituted by converting the Project Tiger Directorate into an autonomous body for tiger conservation. The National Zoological Park in the capital is also a part of the Wildlife wing of the Ministry of Environment & Forests. To combat wildlife related crimes, a Wildlife Crime Control Bureau under the Director, Wildlife Preservation has been constituted with 5 Regional Offices viz, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur and 3 Sub-regional offices at Amritsar, Guwahati, and Kochi. And 5 Border Units located at Moreh, Nathula, Motihari, Gorakhpur and Ramanathapuram.
Wildlife Division deals with the policy and law matters and knowledge management for facilitating processes and analysis for evolution of policy and law for conservation of biodiversity and Protected Area network. Wildlife Division of the Ministry provides technical and financial support to the State/ UT Governments for wildlife conservation under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme - Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats and also through Central Sector Scheme - Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies for Special Tasks, and through Grants in Aid to the Central Zoo Authority and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. The objectives and details of the Schemes are as given below:
CSS - Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats
At present India has a network of 670 Protected Areas (102 National Parks, 517 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 47 Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves).
The Government of India provides financial and technical assistance to the State/UT Governments for activities aimed at wildlife conservation through the Centrally Sponsored Scheme viz. Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’. The scheme has following three components:
1. Support to Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves)
2. Protection of Wildlife Outside Protected Areas
3. Recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and habitats.
1. Support to Protected Areas
Eligible PA's, National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves, other than those availing central assistance under the CSS- Project Tiger, which are duly notified under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and are under the control of the Chief Wildlife Wardens. Pattern of funding 100% central assistance is provided for non-recurring items and 50% assistance for recurring items. Areas falling in mountain regions, coastal zones, deserts, or those areas which support certain selected endangered species, are eligible for 100% central assistance for both recurring and non-recurring items.
2. Protection of Wildlife Outside Protected Areas
There is substantial wildlife and natural resources lying outside the Protected Areas network of India. This component seeks to support the conservation of wildlife in these areas. Eligible areas High-value biodiversity areas outside PAs. Areas contiguous to PAs/corridors are given priority. The Chief Wildlife Wardens prepare a Biodiversity Conservation Plan for such selected area. Pattern of funding: Same as in the case of PAs.
3. Recovery programme for critically endangered species and habitats
This component is for affecting the recovery of critically endangered species in the country. Initially 16 species have been identified under this component. These are Snow Leopard, Bustard (including Floricans), Dolphin, Hangul, Nilgiri Tahr, Marine Turtles, Dugongs, Edible Nest Swiftlet, Asian Wild Buffalo, Nicobar Megapode, Manipur Brow-antlered Deer, Vultures, Malabar Civet, Indian Rhinoceros, Asiatic Lion, Swamp Deer and Jerdon’s Courser.
The Director, Wildlife Preservation, Government of India, in consultation with the Wildlife Institute of India or the relevant scientific institute and with the approval of the Standing Committee of the NBWL can initiate other recovery programmes or wind up an ongoing programme.
Pattern of funding 100% assistance is provided for both non-recurring and recurring items. Each recovery programme has to be based on a comprehensive and scientific ‘Recovery Plan’. The Chief Wildlife Wardens of the concerned States (if the species range is in more than one State), shall jointly prepare the Recovery Plan with the help of a national scientific institute/organization of repute.
Activities under CSS- ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’
Activities covered under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’ are as follows:
- Management Planning and capacity building
- Strengthening wildlife research, education and nature awareness
- Staff development and capacity building
- Monitoring and evaluation
- Management Planning
- Anti-poaching and Infrastructure Development
- Anti-poaching activities
- Strengthening of infrastructure
- Strengthening Wildlife veterinary care
- Strengthening Staff welfare activities
- Restoration of habitats
- Habitat improvement activities
- Safeguards / Retrofitting measures
- Eco-development and community oriented activities:
- Addressing man-animal conflict
- Strengthening co-existence agenda
- Deciding inviolate spaces and relocation of villages from crucial wildlife habitats
- Fostering ecotourism
- Assistance to activities in Trans-boundary Protected Areas.