Jharkhand with a geographical area of 79,714 km2 constitutes 2.42% of the country's area. The total recorded forest area of the state is 23,605 km2 which is 29.61% of the geographical area of the state. Of the total recorded forest area, Reserved Forests constitute 18.58%, Protected Forests 81.28%, and Unclassed Forests 0.14%. As per State of Forest Report of Forest Survey of India, forest cover in the state is 22,977 km2 which is 28.82% of the state's geographical area. The total forest and tree cover put together, it constitutes about 32.48% of the geographical area of the state against the national average of 23.81%. The recorded forest area of the state is about 2.36 million hectares which constitutes 29.61 % of the geographical area of the state. By legal status, Reserve Forests constitute 18.59%, Protected Forests 81.27% and Unclassed Forests a mere 0.14%.There are three forest types viz., Tropical Moist Deciduous, Tropical Dry Deciduous, and Subtropical Broad leaved Hill Forests, Sal (Shorea robusta) being the major forest tree species. The Chhotanagpur Plateau is very rich in its flora and fauna.
State constitutes of One National Park and ten Wildlife Sanctuaries, devoted to in situ conservation of wildlife. They cover 0.21 million hectares, i.e., 2.63% of the state's total geographical area and 9% of the recorded forest area. In addition, there is one Biological Park, at Chakla (Ormanjhi), one Deer Park at Kalamati and one Crocodile Breeding Centre at Muta, all in Ranchi District, devoted to ex situ conservation of wildlife as well as for serving as centres for sensitizing people for conservation of wildlife resources of the state and the country at large. The state is implementing two national research-cum-conservation projects viz., the Project Tiger since 1973-74 for in situ conservation of the Indian Tiger and the Project Elephant since 1991-92 for conservation of viable populations of wild Asiatic Elephants and their habitats. Under these conservation projects, special management units of the Palamau Tiger Reserve and the Singhbhum Elephant Reserve have been created.